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and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the sixth-most populous.
The capital is Brasília, and the most-populated city is São Paulo.
It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas.
This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
On 15 November 1889, worn out by years of economic stagnation, in attrition with the majority of Army officers, as well as with rural and financial elites (for different reasons), the monarchy was overthrown by a military coup.
The "early republican government was little more than a military dictatorship, with army dominating affairs both at Rio de Janeiro and in the states.
The Portuguese colonial administration in Brazil had two objectives that would ensure colonial order and the monopoly of Portugal's wealthiest and largest colony: to keep under control and eradicate all forms of slave rebellion and resistance, such as the Quilombo of Palmares, and its National Bank, additionally ending the Portuguese monopoly on Brazilian trade and opening Brazil to other nations.
Though the first settlement was founded in 1532, colonization effectively began in 1534, when King Dom João III of Portugal divided the territory into the fifteen private and autonomous Captaincy Colonies of Brazil.
However, the decentralized and unorganized tendencies of the captaincy colonies proved problematic, and in 1549 the Portuguese king restructured them into the Governorate General of Brazil, a single and centralized Portuguese colony in South America.
The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress.
The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état.
The Marajoara culture flourish between 800 CE and 1400 CE; they developed sophisticated pottery, social stratification, supported large populations, mound building, and complex social formations such as chiefdoms.