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Sultanpur was the biggest village (covering 52000 bighas of land) under Farrukhnagar and many of the present day villages around it have originated as dhanis i.e.temporary farmer's shelters within the "lal dora" revenue boundary of Sultanpur. Sultanpur was the center of salt production for use in Delhi and the United Provinces of British India till the late 19th century exporting annually 250000 quintals (680000 maunds) over the Rajputana-Malwa Railway.With the levy of the heavy salt tax and acquisition of the Sambhar salt works in Rajputana by the British Indian Government the Sultanpur Salt became uneconomical and by 1903-04 the salt industry was struggling for survival with salt export having fallen to 65000 maunds leading to severe setback to the economy of the Sultanpur area.Finally, in 1923 the British shut down the office of the salt superintendent, had all the mounds of salt thrown back into the wells and shut down the salt industry leading to considerable economic misery to the people.Sultanpur has the typical North Indian climate of harsh summers (up to 46 °C) and cold winters (Low of up to 0 °C).
Among approximately 1,800 migratory bird species out of total 10,000 species of birds in the world, nearly 370 species migrate to India due to seasonal changes, including 175 long-distance migration species that use the Central Asian Flyway route which also include Amur falcons, Egyptian vultures, plovers, ducks, storks, ibises, flamingoes, jacanas, pochards and sociable lapwing.
Every year over a hundred migratory bird species visit here to feed.
In winter the sanctuary provides is a panorama of migratory birds such as Siberian crane, greater flamingo, ruff, black-winged stilt, common teal, common greenshank, northern pintail, yellow wagtail, white wagtail, northern shoveller, rosy pelican, spot-billed pelican, gadwall, wood sandpiper, spotted sandpiper, Eurasian wigeon, black-tailed godwit, spotted redshank, starling, bluethroat and long-billed pipit.
Some of the resident birds are: common hoopoe, paddyfield pipit, purple sunbird, little cormorant, Eurasian thick-knee, gray francolin, black francolin, Indian roller, white-throated kingfisher, spot billed duck, painted stork, white ibis, black headed ibis, little egret, great egret, cattle egret, India crested lark Every year more than 100 migratory bird species arrive at Sultanpur in search of feeding grounds and to pass the winter.
In winter Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary provides a picturesque panorama of migratory birds such as Siberian cranes, greater flamingo, ruff, black winged stilt, common teal, common greenshank, northern pintail, yellow wagtail, white wagtail, northern shoveller, rosy pelican. This Bird Sanctuary, ideal for birding and bird watchers, is best visited in winters when a large number of migratory birds come here.
The Farrukhnagar railway station and metre-gauge railway train service was started on 14 February 1873, and there were a couple of railway sidings at Sultanpur for loading salt into the train wagons.