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Minors’ immaturity is also understood as the incapacity to self-regulate the time they spend on the Internet in that way that it does not endangers their physical and mental health or disrupts their daily and social life.
Contact with strangers and privacy on the Internet. Perception of personal risk, cyberbullying and harassment. Problematic Internet use/Perception of Internet dependence. The active risks category includes: the access to inappropriate contents like those containing information about drugs, pornography, and online gambling and casinos, as well as illegal behaviours like downloading pirated music or movies; contact requests sent to other minors, which often is also socially regarded as a risky behaviour; cyber-harassment, including sexual harassment; and lastly, sharing information or private images to other people who can use this material to endanger their physical and mental integrity.
Another issue addressed here, and possibly in most research studies, is addiction.
In this case, the first striking thing is the profusion of related terms: problematic usage of the Internet (Shapira ., 2012), abusive use, compulsive use, pathological use (Davis, 2001), Internet dependence (Scherer, 1997) deficient use (Tokunaga y Rains, 2010) or, simply, Internet addiction or cyber addiction, among others.
In turn, there is permanent emphasis in the need to legally protect minors from illicit and age-inappropriate contents (Reid, 2005).
Other line of research is related to minors’ scarce knowledge about the legal or illegal status of certain behaviours and their potential consequences like the illegal download of games, music or movies (Mc Cabe, 2000; Livingstone and Helsper, 2007; Livingstone and Haddon, 2008).
Scientific literature commonly diagnoses addictive or dependent behaviour based on the following four factors: the excessive use of the Internet or loss of sense of time; the symptoms of discomfort, tension or depression when it is not possible to access the Internet; tolerance; and negative consequences like social isolation (Weinstein and Lejoyeux, 2010, cited on Bergmark ., 2008, Wan & Chiou, 2006), while Labrador and Villadongos (2010) suggest that the perception of discomfort caused by the lack of Internet use could be assimilated to the abstinence symptoms associated to addiction. As a matter of fact, whether the term has been overvalued and exaggerated in the media has been profusely discussed (Beranuy ., 2009).
At the same time, research studies make clear the particular preoccupation over such issues as the percentage of adolescents who feel they are making an uncontrolled use of the Internet (Garmendia ., 2011), the influence of an excessive daily use among adolescents (Yang and Tung; 2007), the time of Internet exposure as a predictive factor of problematic or addictive uses (Lee & Stapinski, 2012), and the relationship between Internet use and psychiatric disorders such as depression, self-esteem, emotional anguish, anxiety and sleep disorders (Black, Belsare and Schlosser, 1999; Armstrong ., 2008; Lee and Stapinski, 2012).
This category includes: the unwanted contact requests sent by peers and adults -which is not inherently negative but may be so in the eyes of adults-; the reception of potentially harmful contents like pornography, images of violence and degrading acts against the receiver or other people; contents that exalt socially deviated behaviours like racism and xenophobia, drug consumption and eating disorders like anorexia or bulimia; and finally cyberbullying and other forms of harassment, like sexual harassment.
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